IT Terms Glossary

ANSI X.12

American National Standards Institute, X.12 -Data-Interchange-Standard – the base for UN/EDIFACT.

 

ASP

Application Service Provider, abbreviated as ASP, a third-party entity that manages and distributes software-based services and solutions to customers across a wide area network from a central data center. In essence, ASPs are a way for companies to outsource some or almost all aspects of their information technology needs. They may be commercial ventures that cater to customers, or not-for-profit or government organizations, providing service and support to end users.

 

Authentication

The process of identifying an individual through electronic or biometric procedures, to give access rights for data transmittal or the use of networks.

 

B2B (Business-to-Business)

Business-to-Business: direct trade between businesses, manufacturers, merchant middleman and industrial customers via internet/company-wide integration.

 

Browser

Short for Web browser, a software application used to locate and display Web pages. Popular browsers are graphical browsers, which means that they can display graphics as well as text. In addition, most modern browsers can present multimedia information, including sound and video, though they require plug-ins for some formats.

 

C article

Articles with only low goods value like paper, pens and other small parts.

 

CCG (Centrale für Coorganisation GmbH)

Centrale für Coorganisation GmbH, rationalisation company, recognised under antitrust legislation, and competence centre for companies in the German consumer goods and commodities industry. Purpose: to implement internationally devised identification and communication standards.

 

Classic EDI

Electronic data interchange for clients and suppliers with high data volumes.

 

Clearing

Acceptance of messages, sorting according to target addresses and compiling new messages (packets) for the subsequent relevant addressees, normally extensive transactions, e.g. inter-banking clearing, where transaction orders between banks are cleared.

 

Client

Interacts with the server. Example: the PC with which data is retrieved from the internet is the client, and the browser is the client program – the computer on which the internet pages are stored is the server, the client and server communicate via a protocol, which ensures trouble-free exchange.

 

Client-Server

A network architecture in which each computer or process on the network is either a client or a server. Servers are powerful computers or processes dedicated to managing disk drives (file servers), printers (print servers), or network traffic (network servers). Clients are PCs or workstations on which users run applications. Clients rely on servers for resources, such as files, devices, and even processing power.

 

Collaborative Commerce

Co-operation along the added value chain.

 

Converter

Software module which converts data from one EDI format into another.

 

Cross Docking

Stock turnover at a center of distribution, without goods being stored. Goods are directly prepared for further shipment to retail stores.

 

cXML

Short for commerce XML, a set of document type definitions for the XML specification. cXML works as a meta-language that defines necessary information about a product. It is used for the exchange of catalog content and defines request/response processes for secure electronic transactions over the Internet. The processes include purchase orders, change orders, acknowledgments, status updates, ship notifications and payment transactions.

 

DESADV

The despatch advice message contains detailed information on items despatched. The message may refer to several destinations. The recipient of this message knows when goods have been sent and is able to prepare the receipt of the goods. He also can compare order data with delivery data. The despatch advice can be used to despatch goods or to return them.

 

Digital Signature

Process for confirming authenticity and integrity of messages. The sender generates a code from the message with the aid of a private, secret digital key, which he sends with the message in the form of a signature. The recipient can verify whether the message and signature code tally with the help of the sender’s public key that he has been given. If they do tally, then this is proof that the message is authentic and could only have been generated by the holder of the secret key.

 

DTD

Document Type Definition, defining the content of XML messages.

 

EAI

Enterprise Application Integration, business process integration: Combination of highly differing software applications in one IT structure.

 

EAN 128 Standard

International standard for encoding basic and supplementary logistic information (e.g. number of charge, best before date, EAN of trade unit etc.) In order to correctly identify the respective information, a number of specifications have been developed for defining form and contents of the respective data.

 

EAN 128 Transport Label

Label recommended by EAN organization for identifying palettes/despatch units. Contains, as a minimum, the SSCC (Serial Shipping Container Code) for globally unique identification of a despatch unit. May further contain additional logistic information, e.g. EAN of trade unit, No. of charge, ID of recipient, gross weight etc. Codes are written as clear text and barcode.

 

EAN/GTIN

Unique, internationally standardised identification number for articles and services: GTIN is the international name for the EAN number.

 

EANCOM

Compound of EAN and communication, cross-industry standard for electronic data transfer.

 

E-Business

Electronic business processes, though not only applied to trade – includes E-Commerce.

 

E-Commerce

Electronic trade, often limited to trade on the Internet, electronic business transactions/use of modern information and communication technology for exchanging all kinds of business information.

 

e-Conomy

Called e-Commerce, e-Business or Electronic Commerce as well: denominates commerce with commercial and private customers via the Internet and includes in the case of e-Business the digital transaction of business processes, normally in a net-based infrastructure.

 

ECR

Efficient Consumer Response, basic co-operation strategy of trade and industry, characterised by a holistic, cross-company and co-operative approach, and based on state-of-the art technology. ECR contains the tools for process management under changed framework conditions of trade, consumers and internationalisation in Europe. Program and process tools are defined from the sales side through to continuous replenishment and co-operation strategies.

 

EDI

Electronic Data Interchange.

 

EDI Applications

EDI Applications based upon an EDI Basic Shell e.g. Trubiquity clearing center.

 

EDIFACT

Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Transport (UN-nominated EDI standard format for electronic exchange of data).

 

E-Hub

System for the electronic processing of cross-company document-based transactions via the Internet: it consists of a Trubiquity clearing center basic system enhanced by a TRUedx server system.

 

Electronic Loop

Electronic rotation by which internal and inter-corporate procedural optimisation is achieved through consistent EDI application. The aim is to achieve ideal data transfer without media breaks or loss of information.

 

e-Procurement

Electronic acquisition of goods via the Internet.

 

ERP

Enterprise Resource Planning, data exchange format fitted for merchandise management systems.

 

ERP System

Enterprise (Entrepreneur) Resource Planning System, merchandise management system.

 

GAL

General Assignment Language (own MOSAIC programming language).

 

IDOC

Interims Document: SAP-specific data format.

 

In-house System

Internal business system, often working with its own data formats, e.g. booking system, merchandise management system etc.

 

Internet Offline EDI

Trubiquity-specific solution based on the Trubiquity E-Net technology.

 

INVOIC

The invoice message claims payment for goods or services supplied. With correct data qualification INVOIC can also be used as debit or credit note.

 

IT

Information Technology.

 

Mapping

Recording of the existing structures of an IT system complex.

 

Master Data

Master data describe consistent features of standardised consumer goods with EAN numbers. This extends from the weight and the packages physical dimensions to the palette packaging and even the admissible storage temperature. Master data is the condition for the optimisation of storage and truck packaging as well as shelf placement. It enables the receiving control of a palette per weighing machine as well as the overview over packing versions of a branded good or category management.

 

NVE (SSCC)

The globally unique EAN.UCC System identification number for logistic units. The Serial Shipping Container Code is an 18-digit number comprising (from left to right) an Extension digit, EAN.UCC Company Prefix, Serial Reference, and Check digit.

 

Open Standard

A standard whose specifications are public. This includes officially approved standards as well as privately designed architectures whose specifications are made public by the designers via the Internet. XML is an example of an open standard.

 

ORDERS

The purchase order message is used for specifying details on goods or services ordered by the customer.

 

ORDRSP

The purchase order response message is used by the supplier in order to confirm an order or a order change request or to propose amendments to it.

 

Plug in

Trubiquity definition: small program as enhancement for the Internet Explorer – it enables the local and therefore performant processing of workflow data in the Internet Explorer.

 

PRICAT

Price/Sales Catalogue.

 

RECADV

The receiving advice message is used to confirm the receipt of goods or inform about goods ordered but not received or goods that have (not) been accepted.

 

REMADV

The remittance advice message is used to exchange detailed accounting information relative to a payment, or other form of financial settlement between buyer and seller.

 

SAN

Supplier’s Article Number.

 

Server

A central computer or device on a network that manages network resources.

 

SLSRPT

The sales report message is used to transmit sales data related to products or services. The recipient of these data can process the information automatically and use it for production and marketing.

 

SME

Small and medium-sized enterprises.

 

Standard

A definition or format that has been approved by a recognized standards organization or is accepted as a de facto standard by the industry. Standards exist for programming languages, operating systems, data formats, communications protocols, and electrical interfaces. From a user’s standpoint, standards are extremely important in the computer industry because they allow the combination of products from different manufacturers to create a customized system.

 

Structured Data

Data which can be automatically edited by machines without manual intervention. All data elements in structured data contains defined formats and their significance for automatic analysis.

 

Technical Clients

Trubiquity term – Companies (generally form the trade sector) that can receive supplier data and send it to the Trubiquity clearing centre after a successful test and pilot run via the clearing centre. Special mapping for these companies is carried out at the clearing centre.

 

Web Services

The term Web services describes a standardized way of integrating Web-based applications using the XML, SOAP, WSDL and UDDI open standards over an Internet protocol backbone. XML is used to tag the data, SOAP is used to transfer the data, WSDL is used for describing the services available and UDDI is used for listing what services are available. Web services do not provide the user with a GUI. Web services instead share business logic, data and processes through a programmatic interface across a network. The applications interface, not the users. Web services allow different applications from different sources to communicate with each other without time-consuming custom coding, and because all communication is in XML, Web services are not tied to any one operating system or programming language.

 

Web EDI

Electronic data exchange via Internet for clients and suppliers with small/sporadic data volumes. Processing EDI messages in Web forms (HTML or XML) for receiving, analysing and sending messages. Unlike classic EDI, not every partner requires his own EDI system, since Internet and Web technologies are used. Web-EDI breaks with the idea of exchanging corporate data between application systems. Instead, electronic forms for orders, delivery queries etc. are made available on WWW sites by larger participating EDI users for their partners. An unlimited number of business partners can access them upon entering a password. In this way, partners can also be shown current information such as delivery status and sales summaries. The flow of information (confirmations) runs via EDI or the WWW.

 

XML

Extensible Markup Language: Internet-specific data exchange format, syntax language which allows structured data exchange via the Internet. The format, i.e. the syntax, is established, the contents can be freely defined in DTD (semantics). The advantage of XML compared to HTML is that it can structure message content, i.e. give it meaning (= structured data). The layout, i.e. the data’s presentation for users, is separately defined in XML. HTML is a special form of XML, by which only the layout of content is defined, but not the format or meaning of that content (= unstructured data).

 

XML/EDI

Not yet created standard by which XML and the standard EDI are to be harmonised, so that existing EDI messages can be shown in XML.